The lunar magma ocean theory infers that with the evolution of magma, the lighter plagioclase components crystallized upward to form the lunar crust, and the heavier iron-magnesium-rich minerals such as olivine and pyroxene sank and crystallized to form the lunar mantle. However, this inference about the composition of lunar material has not yet been well confirmed. The landing of Chang'E-4 and the deployment of the Yutu-2 rover in Von Kármán crater provide an opportunity for in-depth understanding of the mafic anomaly at the floor of South Pole-Aitken (SPA). Exploration of mafic anomalies in SPA basin provides important insights into the composition of the lunar interior and, specifically, the makeup and process associated with the formation of SPA.
In this study, we focus on the mineral assemblages and composition of one lunar rock detected on the third lunar day, we employ both the modified Gaussian model (MGM) deconvolution and Hapke radiative transfer model to obtain quantitative mineralogical information. The rocks in the landing site of Chang'E-4 (the third lunar day) have Ca- and Fe-rich nature of the pyroxene, with a high olivine content. The mineral proportions of high-Ca pyroxene (HCP), low-Ca pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL) and plagioclase (PLG) are 7:15:13:65. The MGM and Hapke modeling results are consistent for the mineral modes and chemistries.
This study published in the 51st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference "Lunar and Planetary Science Conferences"
Ling, ZC, Liu, CQ, Chen, J., Qi, XB, Jolliff, BL, Qiao, L., ... & Liu, JZ (2020). Mineralogy Assemblages of the Rock Detected at Chang'E-4 Landing Site by Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Aboard Yutu-2. LPI, (2326), 2153.